چند روز پیش، یکی از دوستانم در تلگرام از من پرسید: “می‌خواستم ازتون بپرسم اگه بخوام شروع کنم به مطالعه در زمینه‌ی Lean، شما مطالعه‌ی چه کتابی را توصیه می‌کنید؟”

در پاسخ برایش نوشتم: “برای چه می‌خواهید Lean یاد بگیرید؟”

ایشان پاسخ دادند: “

متاسفم که من شفاف درخواستم رو بیان نکردم☹️. برای مفاهیم بیزنسی/مدیریتی/استارتاپی برپایه تفکر ناب.

و خیلی علاقمندم بدونم تفکر ناب چیه. یادمه سر کلاس اجایل، شما هم به مفهوم Lean خیلی علاقه‌مند بودید و من اولین بار اون‌جا اسم تفکر ناب رو شنیدم.
بعدش چندباری از جاهای مختلف دیگه مدل‌های دیگه‌ای شو شنیدم به خصوص Lean Startup یا Lean Canvas
حالا می‌خوام بدونم Lean در صنعت آی‌تی و زندگی به چه درد من می‌خوره”

با دیدن این پیام به این نتیجه رسیدم که باید مطلبی برای ایشان بفرستم که علاوه بر تاریخچه، چارچوب نظری تفکر ناب را نیز در بر داشته باشد.

پیدا کردن چنین کتابی کار سختی نبود، زیرا زمانی همین پرسش برای خودم مطرح بود و به دنبال منابعی بودم تا پاسخ این پرسش را پیدا کنم. یکی از کتاب‌های مناسب را پیدا کردم و به ایشان معرفی نمودم.

علاوه بر آن، آدرس مقاله‌ای را هم برای ایشان فرستادم که بتوانند خیلی زود، پاسخ‌ پرسش‌های خود را پیدا کنند. این مقاله به قلم “مری پاپندیک” (Mary Poppendieck)، نویسنده و متفکر معروف حوزه‌ی توسعه‌ی ناب (Lean Software Development) است.

مقاله‌ی Lean Software Development: The Backstory که در سال ۲۰۱۵ نوشته شده است، مروری دارد بر تاریخ‌چه، تفکر، شباهت و تفاوت آن با چابکی، اصول و وضعیت توسعه‌ی ناب نرم‌افزار در سال ۲۰۱۵.

به صورت خلاصه چند نکته‌ی مهم در مورد تفکر ناب را به نقل از سایت پاپندیک‌ها در اینجا ذکر می‌نمایم .

Lean software development came to focus on these areas:
Build the right thing: Understand and deliver real value to real customers.
Build it fast: Dramatically reduce the lead time from customer need to delivered solution.
Build the thing right: Guarantee quality and speed with automated testing, integration and deployment.
Learn through feedback: Evolve the product design based on early and frequent end-to-end feedback.

Principles:

۱) Optimize the Whole
The synergy between the parts of a system is the key to the overall success of the system.Clarify Purpose
Great companies are not in business to make money, they make money to stay in business and accomplish an important purpose.

Appreciate the Entire Value Stream
… from concept to cash.
Optimizing any part will sub-optimize the whole.

Think Long Term
Think backward from the future.
Think forward to the next generation.

۲) Focus on Customers

“If you organize around the consumer, the rest of it will follow.” – Eric SchmidtAsk the Right Questions
Innovation begins with a fresh perspective, a keen insight, a penetrating question.Solve the Right Problems
Do not focus on the products you are building, focus on the problems customers are encountering.

Design a Great Experience
It is not enough for customers to be satisfied, they should love your products.

۳) Energize Workers

The time and energy of bright, creative people are the scarce resources in today’s economy.Purpose
A meaningful purpose inspires and energizes workers.Challenge
Provide challenge, feedback, and an environment that enables everyone to become excellent.

Responsibility
The most productive groups are semi-autonomous teams – with an internal leader – that accept end-to-end responsibility for meaningful accomplishments.

 

۴) Reduce Friction
The biggest sources of friction in product development:Building the Wrong Thing
“There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all.” – Peter Drucker

Building the Thing Wrong
If it seems like there is not enough time to build it right, then there certainly is not enough time NOT to build it right.

A Batch and Queue Mentality
Work in progress hides defects, gets obsolete, causes task switching, and delays realization of value.

۵) Enhance Learning

Planning is useful. Learning is essential.The Predictability Paradox
Predictable organizations do not guess about the future and call it a plan; they develop the capacity to learn quickly and rapidly respond to the future as it unfolds.

Integrating Events
Knowledge-based development seeks out knowledge gaps, develops multiple options for solutions, and frequently synchronizes all teams developing the system.

The Last Responsible Moment
Don’t make expensive-to-change decisions before their time – and don’t make them after their time!

۶) Increase Flow
Create a steady, even flow of work, pulled from a deep understanding of value.Speed, Quality & Low Cost are Fully Compatible
Companies that compete on the basis of speed have a big cost advantage, deliver superior quality, and are more attuned to their customers’ needs.

Focus on Flow Efficiency, not Resource Efficiency
Resource efficiency interferes with the smooth flow of value; it often delivers half the value for twice the effort.

Manage Workflow rather than Task-based Schedules
The best way to establish reliable, predictable deliveries is to establish reliable, repeatable workflows.

۷) Build Quality In
Find and fix defects the moment they occur.Mistake-Proof the Process
Think of tests as specifications. Use them to establish confidence in the correctness of the system at any time during development, at every level of the system.

Integrate Early and Often
Every development process ever invented had as its primary purpose to find and fix defects as early in the development process as possible.

Don’t Tolerate Defects
If you expect to find defects during final verification, your development process is defective.

۸) Keep Getting Better
There is no such thing as a best practice.Change as Fast as the World Changes
Yesterday’s wisdom becomes today’s obstacle and tomorrow’s folly.

Pay Attention to the Small Stuff
Reliable performance comes when noise is not tolerated, when small failures are deeply investigated and corrected.

Use the Scientific Method
Establish a hypothesis, conduct many rapid experiments, create concise documentation, and implement the best alternative. Then choose another problem and do it again.

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